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Despite the implication of finality in its name, the battle occurred midway through the campaign, and the city did not fall until September 2, 1864, after a Union siege and various attempts to seize railroads and supply lines leading to Atlanta. The fall of Atlanta was especially noteworthy for its political ramifications. The capture of Atlanta and Hood’s burning of military facilities as he evacuated were extensively covered by Northern newspapers, significantly boosting Northern morale, and Lincoln was re-elected by a significant margin. In the Atlanta Campaign, Maj. Johnston took up a defensive position, Sherman marched to outflank the Confederate defenses, and Johnston retreated again.
Johnston’s perceived reluctance to fight the Union army, even though he had little chance of winning. The dismissal and replacement of Johnston remains one of the most controversial decisions of the civil war. Sherman’s army at Peachtree Creek, but the attack failed with more than two thousand five hundred Confederate casualties. Hood needed to defend the city of Atlanta, which was an important rail hub and industrial center for the Confederacy, but his army was small in comparison to the armies that Sherman commanded. He decided to withdraw, enticing the Union troops to come forward. A sketch of the Battle of Atlanta, July 22, 1864.
Union left flank, had Maj. Sherman’s supply line, and had Maj. Hardee’s men met this other force, and the battle began. Although the initial Confederate attack was repulsed, the Union left flank began to retreat.
With the failure of Hardee’s assault, Wheeler was in no position to hold Decatur, and fell back to Atlanta that night. The main lines of battle now formed an “L” shape, with Hardee’s attack forming the lower part of the “L,” and Cheatham’s attack on the Union front as the vertical member of the “L”. Hood intended to attack the Union troops from both east and west. The fighting centered on a hill east of the city known as Bald Hill. The Federals had arrived two days earlier, and began to shell the city proper, killing several civilians.
A savage struggle, sometimes hand-to-hand, developed around the hill, lasting until just after dark. The Federals held the hill while the Confederates retired to a point just south of there. Meanwhile, two miles to the north, Cheatham’s troops had broken through the Union lines at the Georgia railroad. Confederates, while Logan’s XV Corps regrouped and repulsed the Southern troops. The Union had suffered 3,400 casualties, including Maj. This was a devastating loss for the already reduced Confederate army, but they still held the city.
Both of Sherman’s cavalry raids were defeated by superior southern horsemen. Following the failure to break the Confederates’ hold on the city, Sherman began to employ a new strategy. He swung his entire army in a broad flanking maneuver to the west. With his supply lines fully severed, Hood pulled his troops out of Atlanta the next day, September 1, destroying supply depots as he left to prevent them from falling into Union hands. He also set fire to eighty-one loaded ammunition cars, which led to a conflagration watched by hundreds. Washington on September 3, reading, “Atlanta is ours, and fairly won”.
He then established his headquarters there on September 7, where he stayed for over two months. Northern newspapers, and were a boon to Northern morale and to President Lincoln’s political standing. The capture of Atlanta and Hood’s burning of military facilities as he evacuated showed that a successful conclusion of the war was in sight, weakening support for a truce. I, his associate and commander, fail in words adequate to express my opinion of his great worth. I feel assured that every patriot in America, on hearing this sad news, will feel a sense of personal loss, and the country generally will realize that we have lost, not only an able military leader, but a man who, had he survived, was qualified to heal the national strife which has been raised by designing and ambitious men. November 1865, “A new city is springing up with marvelous rapidity”. Union artillery prior to the Battle of Atlanta.
Luckie, 1 of 40 free blacks, who died from the wounds that he received from the shell that struck the lamp. Commemorated on the other plaque are the Confederacy, the Battle of East Atlanta, and one of the local men who fought in that battle. In 1880, Atlanta ranked among the fifty largest cities in the United States. House, built in 1857, and owned by Ephraim G.