The target of a TPMS is avoiding traffic accidents, poor fuel economy, and increased tire wear due to under-inflated tires through early recognition of a hazardous state of the tires. 1986, using tyre pressure monitoring system pdf hollow spoke wheel system developed by PSK.
TPM as a standard feature. The system uses sensors in the wheels and a driver display which can show tire pressure at any wheel, plus warnings for both high and low pressure. It has been standard on Corvettes ever since. This act affects all light motor vehicles sold after September 1, 2007. From November 1, 2014, all new passenger cars sold in the European Union must be equipped with a TPMS. TPMS are not mandatory, but if a TPMS is fitted, it must comply with the regulation.
TPMS shall be installed to passenger vehicles and vehicles of GVW 3. Japan is expected to adopt European Union legislation approximately one year after European Union implementation. Further countries to make TPMS mandatory include Russia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Israel, Malaysia and Turkey. After the TREAD Act was passed, many companies responded to the market opportunity by releasing TPMS products using battery-powered radio transmitter wheel modules. The introduction of run-flat tires and emergency spare tires by several tire and vehicle manufacturers has motivated to make at least some basic TPMS mandatory when using run-flat tires.
With run-flat tires, the driver will most likely not notice that a tire is running flat, hence the so-called “run-flat warning systems” were introduced. The iTPMS market has progressed as well. Indirect TPMS are able to detect under-inflation through combined use of roll radius and spectrum analysis and hence four-wheel monitoring has become feasible. With this breakthrough, meeting the legal requirements is possible also with iTPMS. Indirect TPMS do not use physical pressure sensors but measure air pressures by monitoring individual wheel rotational speeds and other signals available outside of the tire itself. Second generation iTPMS can also detect simultaneous under-inflation in up to all four tires using spectrum analysis of individual wheels, which can be realized in software using advanced signal processing techniques. These oscillations can hence be monitored through advanced signal processing of the wheel speed signals.
The reset is normally done either by a physical button or in a menu of the on-board computer. TPMS are, compared to dTPMS, more sensitive to the influences of different tires and external influences like road surfaces and driving speed or style. 20 to 60 minutes of driving under which the iTPMS learns and stores the reference parameters before it becomes fully active, cancels out many, but not all of these. Examples for this are most of the VW group models, but also numerous Volvo, Opel, Ford, Mazda, PSA, FIAT and Renault models. TPMS are quickly gaining market shares in the EU and are expected to become the dominating TPMS technology in the near future. Direct TPMS employ pressure sensors on each wheel, either internal or external. The sensors physically measure the tire pressure in each tire and report it to the vehicle’s instrument cluster or a corresponding monitor.