The secret language of teens pdf

Torrentz will always love the secret language of teens pdf. This article is about the Berber language of western Morocco exclusively.

Sous” has been gaining currency among native speakers. Shilha is spoken in an area covering c. In the north and to the south, Shilha borders on Arabic-speaking areas. Within the Shilha area, there are several Arabic-speaking enclaves, notably the town of Taroudant and its surroundings. Substantial Shilha-speaking migrant communities are found in most of the larger towns and cities of northern Morocco, and outside Morocco in Belgium, France, Germany, Canada, the United States, and Israel. Shilha possesses a distinct and substantial literary tradition that can be traced back several centuries before the colonial era.

Many texts, written in Arabic script and dating from the late 16th century to the present, are preserved in manuscripts. A modern printed literature in Shilha has developed since the 1970s. Even though the Moroccan annual population growth of c. 1 percent means that the number of speakers will rise by half a million speakers per decade, so that the number of speakers now probably stands at around 4,5 million, there is no obvious reason to assume that the number of speakers is substantially higher, or lower than that. Some authors mention a much higher number of Shilha speakers.

Stroomer does not refer to any published sources supporting his estimates which, in view of the 2004 census data, are probably too high. Although many speakers of Shilha are bilingual in Moroccan Arabic, there are as yet no indications that the survival of Shilha as a living language will be seriously threatened in the immediate future. Shilha is now spoken by more people than ever before in history. Dialect differentiation within Shilha, such as it is, has not been the subject of any targeted research, but several scholars have noted that all varieties of Shilha are mutually intelligible. The first was Stumme, who observed that all speakers can understand each other, “because the individual dialects of their language are not very different. This was later confirmed by Ahmed Boukous, a Moroccan linguist and himself a native speaker of Shilha, who stated: “Shilha is endowed with a profound unity which permits the Shluh to communicate without problem, from the Ihahan in the northwest to the Aït Baamran in the southwest, from the Achtouken in the west to the Iznagen in the east, and from Aqqa in the desert to Tassaout in the plain of Marrakesh. Shilha, and that of the neighboring Inoultan, Infedouak and Imeghran ethnic groups counted as CAT.

Shilha has been written with several different alphabets. Historically, the Arabic script has been dominant. Usage of the Latin script emerged in the late 19th century. More recently there has been an initiative to write Shilha in Tifinagh.