Synlett 2011 14 1997-2000 pdf documentation is available here. O bonds is one of the fundamental transformations in organic chemistry. H bonds activation are described.
Ultrasound is used in many different fields. Ultrasonic devices are used to detect objects and measure distances. Industrially, ultrasound is used for cleaning, mixing, and to accelerate chemical processes. 1794, when he demonstrated that bats hunted and navigated by inaudible sound and not vision.
Children can hear some high-pitched sounds that older adults cannot hear, because in humans the upper limit pitch of hearing tends to decrease with age. Bats use ultrasounds to navigate in the darkness. The wild ancestors of cats and dogs evolved this higher hearing range to hear high-frequency sounds made by their preferred prey, small rodents. Several types of fish can detect ultrasound. An ultrasonic level or sensing system requires no contact with the target. For many processes in the medical, pharmaceutical, military and general industries this is an advantage over inline sensors that may contaminate the liquids inside a vessel or tube or that may be clogged by the product. Both continuous wave and pulsed systems are used.
The principle behind a pulsed-ultrasonic technology is that the transmit signal consists of short bursts of ultrasonic energy. After each burst, the electronics looks for a return signal within a small window of time corresponding to the time it takes for the energy to pass through the vessel. Only a signal received during this window will qualify for additional signal processing. Polaroid later licensed this ultrasound technology and it became the basis of a variety of ultrasonic products. A common ultrasound application is an automatic door opener, where an ultrasonic sensor detects a person’s approach and opens the door. The flow in pipes or open channels can be measured by ultrasonic flowmeters, which measure the average velocity of flowing liquid. Principle of flaw detection with ultrasound.
A void in the solid material reflects some energy back to the transducer, which is detected and displayed. Frequencies of 2 to 10 MHz are common but for special purposes other frequencies are used. Inspection may be manual or automated and is an essential part of modern manufacturing processes. Ultrasonic inspection eliminates the use of ionizing radiation, with safety and cost benefits. Ultrasound can also provide additional information such as the depth of flaws in a welded joint.
Ultrasonic inspection has progressed from manual methods to computerized systems that automate much of the process. An ultrasonic test of a joint can identify the existence of flaws, measure their size, and identify their location. An ultrasonic pulse is generated in a particular direction. By measuring the difference in time between the pulse being transmitted and the echo being received, it is possible to determine the distance. The measured travel time of Sonar pulses in water is strongly dependent on the temperature and the salinity of the water.
Ultrasonic ranging is also applied for measurement in air and for short distances. For example, hand-held ultrasonic measuring tools can rapidly measure the layout of rooms. Ultrasonic measurements may be limited through barrier layers with large salinity, temperature or vortex differentials. The potential for ultrasonic imaging of objects, with a 3 GHZ sound wave producing resolution comparable to an optical image, was recognized by Sokolov in 1939 but techniques of the time produced relatively low-contrast images with poor sensitivity. The power density is generally less than 1 watt per square centimetre, to avoid heating and cavitation effects in the object under examination. Ultrasonic imaging applications include industrial non-destructive testing, quality control and medical uses. Frequencies up to several gigahertz are used in acoustic microscopes.
The reflection and diffraction of sound waves from microscopic structures can yield information not available with light. 50 years and has become a widely used diagnostic tool. As currently applied in the medical field, properly performed ultrasound poses no known risks to the patient. Ultrasound is used to evaluate fat thickness, rib eye area, and intramuscular fat in living animals. It is also used to evaluate the health and characteristics of unborn calves.
Ultrasound technology provides a means for cattle producers to obtain information that can be used to improve the breeding and husbandry of cattle. The technology can be expensive, and it requires a substantial time commitment for continuous data collection and operator training. Nevertheless, this technology has proven useful in managing and running a cattle breeding operation. 10 watts per square centimeter, cavitation can be inducted in liquid media, and some applications use up to 1000 watts per square centimeter. Such high intensities can induce chemical changes or produce significant effects by direct mechanical action, and can inactivate harmful microorganisms. Relatively high power ultrasound can break up stony deposits or tissue, accelerate the effect of drugs in a targeted area, assist in the measurement of the elastic properties of tissue, and can be used to sort cells or small particles for research. It is a metallurgical processing technique in which ultrasonic energy is applied to a metal object.