Programming paradigms concepts book pdf

This article is about classification of programming languages. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Languages can be classified into programming paradigms concepts book pdf paradigms. Other paradigms are concerned mainly with the way that code is organized, such as grouping a code into units along with the state that is modified by the code.

Yet others are concerned mainly with the style of syntax and grammar. The communication between the units of code is not explicit. Most object-oriented languages are also imperative languages. Instead, they supply a number of operations that are available in the system, along with the conditions under which each is allowed to execute. The implementation of the language’s execution model tracks which operations are free to execute and chooses the order on its own. Software designers and programmers decide how to use those paradigm elements.

In object-oriented programming, programs are treated as a set of interacting objects. Partly for this reason, new paradigms are often regarded as doctrinaire or overly rigid by those accustomed to earlier styles. Programming models can also be classified into paradigms, based on features of the execution model. The reason is that details of the parallel hardware leak into the abstractions used to program the hardware. As a consequence, no one parallel programming language maps well to all computation problems. It is thus more convenient to use a base sequential language and insert API calls to parallel execution models, via a programming model. These can be considered flavors of programming paradigm that apply to only parallel languages and programming models.