Peer tutoring links high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement for structured learning. It promotes academic gains as well as social enhancement. With the passage of No Child Left Behind, education professionals are seeking research-supported practices that are applicable in classrooms and facilitate access to the general curriculum for students with disabilities. Peer tutoring peer assisted learning strategies pdf research-supported practices with individualized instruction, which can be adapted to meet individual student needs.
This brief introduces peer tutoring, an instructional method that facilitates access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities. Eight references in this brief have been reviewed by the WWC, thus far. Peer tutoring is an instructional strategy that consists of student partnerships, linking high achieving students with lower achieving students or those with comparable achievement, for structured reading and math study sessions. There has been extensive research on peer tutoring. The chart below provides a brief comparison of approaches. Research exists in these content areas. Approach may be used in other areas.
The following sections discuss each of these three peer tutoring approaches. There are no stringent tutoring procedures established for Cross-Age Tutoring, however most tutors do engage in some type of training. By involving students with disabilities in their education and giving them self-management tools students can generalize motivation into other areas. There has been considerable research on the outcomes of Cross-Age Tutoring.
Math effects tended to be stronger than in reading. Awarded “best practice” status by the U. Department of Education Program Effectiveness Panel for inclusion in the National Diffusion Network. Unlike Cross-Age Tutoring, PALS is a structured peer tutoring program. PALS was developed in 1989 by Dr. Developers used these methods to enable a wider range of students to participate and increase success in school.
PALS offers specific programs in math and reading. Reading PALS is available for preschool through 6th grade and for 9th grade through 12th grade, with variations available for some grade levels. Math PALS is available for kindergarten through 6th grade. In both content areas, the PAL strategies are designed to complement and not replace existing classroom reading and math curricula and instructional methods. Reading and Math PALS are each briefly discussed below.
Reading PALS pairs students in a systematic way. First, students are ranked according to reading competence. Next, each student in the class is paired with another student. The pairs consist of one higher- and one lower-achieving student. The higher-achieving student always reads first, as a model for the other student.
Students are monitored as they engage in the lessons. PALS sessions in which the partners take turns reading and describing what they read to each other. Partner Reading – the higher-achieving student reads aloud while their partner follows along correcting mistakes. After five minutes the students switch roles and reread the same selection. Paragraph Shrinking – students must state the main idea in ten words or less which encourages them to display and monitor comprehension while taking turns reading one paragraph at a time.