The study investigated the effects of cooperative learning on junior high school students joining together group theory and group skills pdf worked in structured or unstructured cooperative groups. Two hundred and twenty-three junior high school students participated in the study and worked in three or four-person, mixed gender and achievement groups.
The results show that the children in the structured groups were more willing to work with others on the assigned tasks and they provided more elaborate help and assistance to each other than their peers in the unstructured groups. Furthermore, as the children in the structured groups had more opportunities to work together, they developed a stronger perception of group cohesion and social responsibility for each other’s learning than their peers in the unstructured groups. Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution. The inpatient small group psychotherapy literature is organized with reference to issues of historical background, goals, individual versus group treatment, medications, therapist style, pretraining, cotherapy, alternate sessions, types of group approaches, selection and group composition, and conducting groups in short stay settings.
1982 Published by Elsevier Ltd. Aggressive” and “Aggressive Behavior” redirect here. It may occur either in retaliation or without provocation. In humans, frustration due to blocked goals can cause aggression. Human aggression can be classified into direct and indirect aggression, whilst the first is characterized by physical or verbal behavior intended to cause harm to someone, the second one is characterized by a behavior intended to harm social relations of an individual or a group.
Some definitions include that the individual must intend to harm another person. Aggression can have adaptive benefits or negative effects. Aggressive behavior is an individual or collective social interaction that is a hostile behavior with the intention of inflicting damage or harm. Two broad categories of aggression are commonly distinguished.
An example of hostile aggression would be a person who punches someone who insulted him or her. However, some researchers question the usefulness of a hostile versus instrumental distinction in humans, despite its ubiquity in research, because most real-life cases involve mixed motives and interacting causes. A number of classifications and dimensions of aggression have been suggested. Aggression may occur in response to non-social as well as social factors, and can have a close relationship with stress coping style. Biological approaches conceptualize aggression as an internal energy released by external stimuli, a product of evolution through natural selection, part of genetics, a product of hormonal fluctuations. Psychological approaches conceptualize aggression as a destructive instinct, a response to frustration, an affect excited by a negative stimulus, a result of observed learning of society and diversified reinforcement, a resultant of variables that affect personal and situational environments.
The first known use dates back to 1611, in the sense of an unprovoked attack. In such settings aggression can involve bodily contact such as biting, hitting or pushing, but most conflicts are settled by threat displays and intimidating thrusts that cause no physical harm. Most ethologists believe that aggression confers biological advantages. Aggression may also occur for self-protection or to protect offspring. However, according to many researchers, predation is not aggression.
However, others refer to this behavior as predatory aggression, and point out cases that resemble hostile behavior, such as mouse-killing by rats. Release of nerol by T. Aggression between groups is determined partly by willingness to fight, which depends on a number of factors including numerical advantage, distance from home territories, how often the groups encounter each other, competitive abilities, differences in body size, and whose territory is being invaded. Also, an individual is more likely to become aggressive if other aggressive group members are nearby.