John alexander how to flip discounted notes pdf

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The home of over 5. Easily clip, save and share what you find with family and friends. Easily download and save what you find. Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory. This is an extension of the Cognitive Bias Codex which includes the definitions of the cognitive biases. Both effects can be present at the same time. Although this research overwhelmingly involves human subjects, some findings that demonstrate bias have been found in non-human animals as well.

Many of these biases affect belief formation, business and economic decisions, and human behavior in general. The tendency to avoid options for which missing information makes the probability seem “unknown”. The tendency to use human analogies as a basis for reasoning about other, less familiar, biological phenomena. The tendency to characterize animals, objects, and abstract concepts as possessing human-like traits, emotions, and intentions. The tendency of our perception to be affected by our recurring thoughts. The tendency to depend excessively on automated systems which can lead to erroneous automated information overriding correct decisions.

The tendency to overestimate the likelihood of events with greater “availability” in memory, which can be influenced by how recent the memories are or how unusual or emotionally charged they may be. The reaction to disconfirming evidence by strengthening one’s previous beliefs. An effect where someone’s evaluation of the logical strength of an argument is biased by the believability of the conclusion. The tendency to misinterpret statistical experiments involving conditional probabilities. The tendency to see oneself as less biased than other people, or to be able to identify more cognitive biases in others than in oneself.