I thoroughly recommend it to everyone who has an interest in why we humans behave the way we do. Goldstein on PBS “Wide Angle,” Dec. Goldstein on women at war, Minnesota Goldstein pevehouse international relations pdf Radio, Oct. Article: “War” in Michael S.
Kimmel and Amy Aronson, eds. Encyclopedia of Men and Masculinities, Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2004. An unusual and unorthodox approach that works very well indeed. Peace in the 21st Century? A perfect book for our time. Skyhorse, 2015, coauthor Mark I.
A powerful family drama and a reminder of the price veterans pay long after the fighting ends. An important book for all Americans. A well-balanced analysis of theories about the economic long wave. Anthropology, Psychology, Gender Studies, Economic History, and Political Economy, 2001-2004. Looking for a different Joshua Goldstein? One of the biggest issue facing international relations is one of collective goods.
The issue with the collective goods problem is that national interests often times trumps global interests. Because countries are sovereign entities, it is difficult to regulate what one country does over another. Some problems that may arise are countries have different ideas and different standards, as well as different goals and needs for their country. There are a large number of factors that determine why countries make the decisions that they do, but there are principles to solving these collective goods dilemmas. The three basic principles are dominance, reciprocity and identity.
The principle of dominance solves the collective goods problem by establishing power hierarchy in which those at the top control those below. Then social conflicts over things such as resources are resolved automatically in the favor of the higher ranking actor. Staying on top of a status hierarchy does not depend on strength alone, rather the top actor may be the one most adept at forming and maintaining alliances among the group’s capable members. The advantage to the dominance solution is that, like government, it forces members of the group to contribute to the common good and minimizes open conflict within the group. Some drawbacks would be conflict over position in the hierarchy can occasionally harm the group’s stability. The second principle of the collective goods problem is reciprocity. Reciprocity solves the problem by rewarding or punishing behavior that pursues self interest at the expense of the group.
The disadvantage of reciprocity as a solution to the collective goods problem is that it can lead to a downward spiral as each side punishes what it perceives to be negative acts by the other. In international relations, reciprocity forms the basis of most of the norms, and institutions in the international system. If one country opens its markets for another’s goods, the other will open its markets in return. On the contrary, if one country expels a number of foreign diplomats from a country for spying, the other country will respond by expelling the same amount of diplomats. The third principle is the principle of identity which does not rely on self-interest. In each case, individual members will accept solutions to the collective goods problem that do not benefit them as individuals, but because the benefits are shared among the collective group. In international relations, relatively large foreign aid contributions cannot be explained well by self-interest but arise from the countries’ self defined identities as members of the international communities.
Identity communities play important roles in overcoming difficult collective goods problems including the issue of who contributes to development assistance, world health and UN peacekeeping missions. Some examples of collective goods problems are nuclear proliferation, global warming, and refugees and immigration. Nuclear proliferation is an issue that affects the whole international community. In a society of nations, there is no central authority, and sovereign countries do not necessarily have to answer to anyone.