This article is about Building information modeling. The concept of BIM has existed since the 1970s. The term ‘Building Information Model’ first appeared in a 1992 paper by G. Jerry Laiserin helped popularize and standardize the term as a common name for building design and construction handbook pdf digital representation of the building process.
As Graphisoft had been developing such solutions for longer than its competitors, Laiserin regarded its ArchiCAD as then “one of the most mature BIM solutions on the market. CAD product on a personal computer able to create both 2D and 3D geometry, as well as the first commercial BIM product for personal computers. BIM therefore covers more than just geometry. BIM design tools allow extraction of different views from a building model for drawing production and other uses.
These different views are automatically consistent, being based on a single definition of each object instance. Each model element can carry attributes for selecting and ordering them automatically, providing cost estimates as well as material tracking and ordering. This reduces information losses that traditionally occurred when a new team takes ‘ownership’ of the project, and provides more extensive information to owners of complex structures. Building information models span the whole concept-to-occupation time-span. The BIM manager is retained by a design build team on the client’s behalf from the pre-design phase onwards to develop and to track the object-oriented BIM against predicted and measured performance objectives, supporting multi-disciplinary building information models that drive analysis, schedules, take-off and logistics. Companies are also now considering developing BIMs in various levels of detail, since depending on the application of BIM, more or less detail is needed, and there is varying modeling effort associated with generating building information models at different levels of detail. Participants in the building process are constantly challenged to deliver successful projects despite tight budgets, limited manpower, accelerated schedules, and limited or conflicting information.
Building Information Modeling aids in collision detection at the initial stage, identifying the exact location of discrepancies. The BIM concept envisages virtual construction of a facility prior to its actual physical construction, in order to reduce uncertainty, improve safety, work out problems, and simulate and analyze potential impacts. Sub-contractors from every trade can input critical information into the model before beginning construction, with opportunities to pre-fabricate or pre-assemble some systems off-site. Waste can be minimised on-site and products delivered on a just-in-time basis rather than being stock-piled on-site. Quantities and shared properties of materials can be extracted easily. Scopes of work can be isolated and defined. Systems, assemblies and sequences can be shown in a relative scale with the entire facility or group of facilities.