For example, someone described as “conscientious” is more likely to be described as “always prepared” rather than “messy”. This theory is based therefore on the association between words but not on neuropsychological experiments. Beneath each proposed global factor, there are big five model of personality pdf number of correlated and more specific primary factors.
For example, extraversion is said to include such related qualities as gregariousness, assertiveness, excitement seeking, warmth, activity, and positive emotions. Openness reflects the degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity and a preference for novelty and variety a person has. It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities over a strict routine. High openness can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus, and more likely to engage in risky behaviour or drug taking. Also, individuals that have high openness tend to lead towards being artists or writers in regards to being creative and appreciate the significance of the intellectual and artistic pursuits. Conversely, those with low openness seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance and are characterized as pragmatic and data-driven—sometimes even perceived to be dogmatic and closed-minded.
Some disagreement remains about how to interpret and contextualize the openness factor. High conscientiousness is often perceived as stubbornness and obsession. Low conscientiousness is associated with flexibility and spontaneity, but can also appear as sloppiness and lack of reliability. High extraversion is often perceived as attention-seeking, and domineering. Low extraversion causes a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as aloof or self-absorbed. Extroverted people tend to be more dominant in social settings, opposed to introverted people who may act more shy and reserved in this setting.
It is also a measure of one’s trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person is generally well-tempered or not. High agreeableness is often seen as naive or submissive. Low agreeableness personalities are often competitive or challenging people, which can be seen as argumentativeness or untrustworthiness. Neuroticsm identifies certain people who are more prone to physiological stress. A high need for stability manifests itself as a stable and calm personality, but can be seen as uninspiring and unconcerned. A low need for stability causes a reactive and excitable personality, often very dynamic individuals, but they can be perceived as unstable or insecure. People who don’t exhibit a clear tendency towards specific characteristics chosen from the above-mentioned related pairs in all five dimensions are considered adaptable, moderate and reasonable personalities, but can be perceived as unprincipled, inscrutable and calculating.
The Big five personality traits was the model to comprehend the relationship between personality and academic behaviors. This model was defined by several independent sets of researchers. These researchers began by studying relationships between a large number of known personality traits. These five overarching domains have been found to contain and subsume most known personality traits and are assumed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.