Many of its daughter languages combined or merged these moods. The optative was used to express wishes or hopes. However, in Sanskrit, use of the subjunctive is found only in the Arabic grammar dover wright pdf language of the earliest times, and the optative and imperative are comparatively less commonly used.
However, the first-person forms of the subjunctive continue to be used, as they are transferred to the imperative, which formerly, like Greek, had no first person forms. Indo-European optative marker of five thousand years ago. The English subjunctive also occurs in counterfactual dependent clauses, using a form of the verb that in the indicative would indicate a time of action prior to the one implied by the subjunctive. It is called the past subjunctive when referring counterfactually to the present, and is called the pluperfect subjunctive when referring counterfactually to the past.