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All of the download are provided by our adversiser. DMCA report, please send email to ΑDC. Further documentation is available here. This article is about the psychological concept. Reinforcement does not require an individual to consciously perceive an effect elicited by the stimulus. Thus, reinforcement occurs only if there is an observable strengthening in behavior. However, there is also negative reinforcement, which is characterized by taking away an undesirable stimulus.
An ibuprofen is a negative reinforcer because it takes away pain. Positive” actions are those that add a factor, be it pleasant or unpleasant, to the environment, whereas “negative” actions are those that remove or withhold from the environment a factor of either type. Thus, “positive reinforcement” refers to the addition of a pleasant factor, “positive punishment” refers to the addition of an unpleasant factor, “negative reinforcement” refers to the removal or withholding of an unpleasant factor, and “negative punishment” refers to the removal or withholding of a pleasant factor. This usage is at odds with some non-technical usages of the four term combinations, especially in the case of the term “negative reinforcement,” which is often used to denote what technical parlance would describe as “positive punishment” in that the non-technical usage interprets “reinforcement” as subsuming both reward and punishment and “negative” as referring to the responding operant’s evaluation of the factor being introduced. If the frequency of “cookie-requesting behavior” increases, the cookie can be seen as reinforcing “cookie-requesting behavior”.
If however, “cookie-requesting behavior” does not increase the cookie cannot be considered reinforcing. The sole criterion that determines if a stimulus is reinforcing is the change in probability of a behavior after administration of that potential reinforcer. Other theories may focus on additional factors such as whether the person expected a behavior to produce a given outcome, but in the behavioral theory, reinforcement is defined by an increased probability of a response. A number of others continued this research, notably B. Skinner, who published his seminal work on the topic in The Behavior of Organisms, in 1938, and elaborated this research in many subsequent publications.
Notably Skinner argued that positive reinforcement is superior to punishment in shaping behavior. A great many researchers subsequently expanded our understanding of reinforcement and challenged some of Skinner’s conclusions. Research on the effects of positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment continue today as those concepts are fundamental to learning theory and apply to many practical applications of that theory. Skinner to indicate that in his experimental paradigm the organism is free to operate on the environment. Example: Whenever a rat presses a button, it gets a treat.
If the rat starts pressing the button more often, the treat serves to positively reinforce this behavior. Example: A father gives candy to his daughter when she picks up her toys. Example: A company enacts a rewards program in which employees earn prizes dependent on the number of items sold. The prizes the employees receive are the positive reinforcement if they increase sales.
Example: A child cleans his or her room, and this behavior is followed by the parent stopping “nagging” or asking the child repeatedly to do so. Here, the nagging serves to negatively reinforce the behavior of cleaning because the child wants to remove that aversive stimulus of nagging. Example: A person puts ointment on a bug bite to soothe an itch. If the ointment works, the person will likely increase the usage of the ointment because it resulted in removing the itch, which is the negative reinforcer.